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Floral visits to the western Mediterranean

By Helen Roberts

A floral excursion to the western Mediterranean at this time of year appeals to many of us. The anticipation of warm weather, beautiful landscapes and a dizzyingly diverse range of exquisite wild flowers and I want to pack my bags in a flash. I certainly felt that way when I saw some of the images of the region’s wild flowers in a recent Friends' talk given by botanist Dr Chris Thorogood.

However, if you cannot escape overseas, then the Mediterranean collection at the University of Bristol Botanic Garden will give you a taste of some of the Mediterranean Basin species although you will have to wait till later in the year to see some of the flowers in bloom. 

If you do have a trip in mind though, here are a few of Chris Thorogood’s favourite spots to see the wild flowers of the western Mediterranean:
Cape St Vincent, Portugal. Photo courtesy of Peter Broster via
Flickr [CC license]

The Algarve, Portugal:

This area has a diverse flora due to varied geology and weather with numerous endemic species and beautiful wild flower meadows. Cape St Vincent, the most south-westerly point in the area and a vast nature reserve, has a spectacular display of flowers in the spring and early summer (January through to the end of May). There are many unique species of thyme and endemic rarities like the tiny diamond flower (Ionopsidium acaule).

Almeria, Spain:

This province is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula and has a wealth of species adapted to cope with extremely dry conditions. Many plants are salt tolerant including sea lavenders like Limoniuminsigne and the rare low growing lily, Androcymbium europaeum whose flowers emerge on sand dunes in mid winter. An area called Cabo de Gata, an impressive tract of volcanic cliffs, is host to numerous unusual species. Many of these are freakishly odd looking from the succulent Caralluma europaea with its purple and yellow striped flowers to the phallic form of the parasitic Cynomorium coccineum.

Cap de Formentor, Mallorca:

This peninsula in the northeast of the island has many unique sea lavenders and orchids. Endemics are closely dotted only metres apart. Much of the landscape is fairly inaccessible due to its rocky and precipitous nature so one needs to be fairly adventurous to spot some species. Notable endemic species include Arum pictum, an arum that smells of rotten meat to attract its fly pollinators and a species of St John’s Wort unique to Mallorca, Hypericum balearicum.

Maremma, Southern Tuscany, Italy:

The Maremma region is rich in wild flowers and contains 25% of all Italian flora. It has a unique geology and extremely varied landscapes including the protected coast, swathes of pine forest and abandoned agricultural plains. The giant fennel, Ferula communis, is one such distinctive plant with its towering inflorescences that can take many years to develop.

Gargano National Park, Puglia, Italy:

The yellow bee orchid (Ophrys lutea) is one of the orchid
species found in Gargano National Park.
Photo credit: Alastair Rae [via Flickr, CC license]
This park has a unique flora and are highly specialised for growing in certain conditions many being endemic. The park covers a vast area and as a result the landscapes are varied from rich beech forests, steep cliffs, karstic plateaus and scrubby maquis. There are many orchid species here (over 65) including some unique bee orchids.


Helen Roberts is a trained landscape architect with a background in plant sciences. She is a probationary member of the Garden Media Guild and a regular contributor to the University of Bristol Botanic Garden blog.


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